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【国外】International Day of Older Persons
国际老年人日
资料引自“联合国网站”

On 14 December 1990, the United Nations General Assembly (by resolution 45/106) designated 1 October the International Day of Older Persons.

In 1991, the General Assembly (by resolution 46/91) adopted the United Nations Principles for Older Persons.

In 2002, the Second World Assembly on Ageing adopted the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing, to respond to the opportunities and challenges of population ageing in the 21st century and to promote the development of a society for all ages.

Globally, there were 703 million persons aged 65 or over in 2019. The region of Eastern and South-Eastern Asia was home to the largest number of older persons (261 million), followed by Europe and Northern America (over 200 million).

International Day of Older Persons Annual Themes

  • 1998&2000: Towards A Society for All Ages
  • 2004: Older persons in an intergenerational society
  • 2005: Ageing in the new millennium
  • 2006: Improving the Quality of Life for Older Persons: Advancing UN Global Strategies
  • 2007: Addressing the Challenges and Opportunities of Ageing
  • 2008: Rights of Older Persons
  • 2009: Celebrating the 10th Anniversary of the International Year of Older Persons: Towards a Society for All Ages
  • 2010: Older persons and the achievement of the MDGs
  • 2011: The Growing Opportunities & Challenges of Global Ageing
  • 2012: Longevity: Shaping the Future
  • 2013: The future we want: what older persons are saying
  • 2014: Leaving No One Behind: Promoting a Society for All
  • 2015: Sustainability and Age Inclusiveness in the Urban Environment
  • 2016: Take A Stand Against Ageism
  • 2017: Stepping into the Future: Tapping the Talents, Contributions and Participation of Older Persons in Society
  • 2018: Celebrating Older Human Rights champions
  • 2019: The Journey to Age Equality

2020 UNIDOP:

“Pandemics: Do They Change How We Address Age and Ageing?”

The objectives of UNIDOP 2020 are to:

  • Inform participants about the strategic objectives for the Decade of Healthy Ageing
  • Raise awareness of the special health needs of older persons and of their contributions to their own health and to the functioning of the societies in which they live
  • Increase awareness and appreciation of the role of the health care workforce in maintaining and improving the health of older persons, with special attention to the nursing profession
  • Present proposals for reducing the health disparities between older persons in the developed and developing countries, so as to “Leave no one behind”
  • Increase understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on older persons and its impact on health care policy, planning, and attitudes.

The United Nations Principles for Older Persons

The General Assembly:

Appreciating the contribution that older persons make to their societies,

Recognizing that, in the Charter of the United Nations, the peoples of the United Nations declare, inter alia, their determination to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Noting the elaboration of those rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other declarations to ensure the application of universal standards to particular groups,

In pursuance of the International Plan of Action on Ageing, adopted by the World Assembly on Ageing and endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 37/51 of 3 December 1982,

Appreciating the tremendous diversity in the situation of older persons, not only between countries but within countries and between individuals, which requires a variety of policy responses,

Aware that in all countries, individuals are reaching an advanced age in greater numbers and in better health than ever before,

Aware of the scientific research disproving many stereotypes about inevitable and irreversible declines with age,

Convinced that in a world characterized by an increasing number and proportion of older persons, opportunities must be provided for willing and capable older persons to participate in and contribute to the ongoing activities of society,

Mindful that the strains on family life in both developed and developing countries require support for those providing care to frail older persons,

Bearing in mind the standards already set by the International Plan of Action on Ageing and the conventions, recommendations and resolutions of the International Labour Organization, the World Health Organization and other United Nations entities,

Encourages Governments to incorporate the following principles into their national programmes whenever possible:…

Independence:

  1. Older persons should have access to adequate food, water, shelter, clothing and health care through the provision of income, family and community support and self-help.
  2. Older persons should have the opportunity to work or to have access to other income-generating opportunities.
  3. Older persons should be able to participate in determining when and at what pace withdrawal from the labour force takes place.
  4. Older persons should have access to appropriate educational and training programmes.
  5. Older persons should be able to live in environments that are safe and adaptable to personal preferences and changing capacities.
  6. Older persons should be able to reside at home for as long as possible.

Participation:

  1. Older persons should remain integrated in society, participate actively in the formulation and implementation of policies that directly affect their well-being and share their knowledge and skills with younger generations.
  2. Older persons should be able to seek and develop opportunities for service to the community and to serve as volunteers in positions appropriate to their interests and capabilities.
  3. Older persons should be able to form movements or associations of older persons.

Care:

  1. Older persons should benefit from family and community care and protection in accordance with each society’s system of cultural values.
  2. Older persons should have access to health care to help them to maintain or regain the optimum level of physical, mental and emotional well- being and to prevent or delay the onset of illness.
  3. Older persons should have access to social and legal services to enhance their autonomy, protection and care.
  4. Older persons should be able to utilize appropriate levels of institutional care providing protection, rehabilitation and social and mental stimulation in a humane and secure environment.
  5. Older persons should be able to enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms when residing in any shelter, care or treatment facility, including full respect for their dignity, beliefs, needs and privacy and for the right to make decisions about their care and the quality of their lives.

Self-fulfillment

  1. Older persons should be able to pursue opportunities for the full development of their potential.
  2. Older persons should have access to the educational, cultural, spiritual and recreational resources of society.

Dignity

  1. Older persons should be able to live in dignity and security and be free of exploitation and physical or mental abuse.
  2. Older persons should be treated fairly regardless of age, gender, racial or ethnic background, disability or other status, and be valued independently of their economic contribution.

Source from United Nation Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Ageing

国际老年人日

  1990年12月14日,联合国大会通过第45/106号决议,指定10月1日为国际老年人日。

  此前,1982年老龄问题世界大会通过了《维也纳老龄问题国际行动计划》。同年晚些时候,联合国大会核准了该行动计划。

  1991年,大会第46/91号决议通过了《联合国老年人原则》。

  2002年,第二次老龄问题世界大会通过了《马德里老龄问题国际行动计划》,旨在应对21世纪人口老龄化的机遇和挑战,促进不分年龄人人共享的社会的发展。

  目前,全世界约有10亿60岁以上人口。预计,到2050年,全世界每6人中,就有1人年龄在65岁(16%)以上,而这一数字在2019年为11人(9%);到2050年,在欧洲和北美,每4人中就有1人年龄在65岁或以上。2018年,全球65岁或以上人口史无前例地超过了5岁以下人口数量。此外,预计80岁或以上人口将增长两倍,从2019年的1.43亿增至2050年的4.26亿。

  发展中国家老年人人数将增加最多,也最为迅速,亚洲将成为老年人人口最多的区域,非洲老年人人口的增长比例将占世界首位。有鉴于此,显然需要更加重视许多老年人所面临的特殊需要和挑战,但同等重要的是,也需要更加重视在具有适当保障的条件下,大多数老年人可以为社会的运转所作出的重要贡献。在这方面的所有努力中,人权居于核心地位。

2020年国际老年人日的主题旨在:

  • 向参与者介绍“健康老龄化行动十年”的战略目标。
  • 提高人们对老年人特殊健康需求的认识,并认识到老年人对于自身健康的贡献及其对所在社会的作用。
  • 使人们进一步认识和认可医护人员在维持和改善老年人健康方面的作用,尤其关注职业护理人员。
  • 提出减少发达国家和发展中国家之间老年人健康差距的建议,实现“不让任何一个人掉队”。
  • 让人们进一步了解2019冠状病毒病对老年人的影响,以及其对医疗政策、计划和态度的影响。

联合国老年人原则

大会

  赞赏老年人对其社会所作的贡献,

  确认在《联合国宪章》中,联合国人民除其他外,宣布其决心重申基本人权,人格尊严与价值,以及男女与大小各国平等权利之信念,并促成大自由中之社会进步及较善之民生,

  注意到在《世界人权宣言》、《经济、社会、文化权利国际盟约》和《公民权利和政治权利国际盟约》以及其他宣言中对这些权利作了详细的阐述,以确保对特定群体适用普遍标准,

  根据老龄问题世界大会通过并由大会1982年12月3日第37/51号决议核准的《老龄问题国际行动计划》,

  认识到老年人的处境不但国与国之间有极大的差异,而且在各国国内及个人之间也大不相同,需要有多种政策响应,

  意识到在所有国家内,老年人的人数不断增加,而且健康状况比以往更好,

  意识到科学研究已否定了许多年老必衰、每况愈下的陈旧观念,

  深信在老年人数目和比例日增的世界,必须提供机会,让有意愿有能力的老年人参加社会日常活动并且做出贡献

  念及在发达国家和发展中国家,家庭生活的压力需要对那些照顾体弱老年人的人给予支助,

  铭记由《老龄问题国际行动计划》以及国际劳工组织、世界卫生组织和其他联合国实体通过的公约、建议和决议所已确定的标准,

鼓励各国政府尽可能将下列原则纳入本国国家方案,

独立

  1. 老年人应能通过提供收入、家庭和社会支助以及自助,享有足够的食物、水、住房、衣着和保健。

  2. 老年人应有工作机会或其他创造收入机会。

  3. 老年人应能参与决定退出劳动力队伍的时间和节奏。

  4. 老年人应能参加适当的教育和培训方案。

  5. 老年人应能生活在安全且适合个人选择和能力变化的环境。

  6. 老年人应能尽可能长期在家居住。

参与

  7. 老年人应始终融合于社会,积极参与制定和执行直接影响其福祉的政策,并将其知识和技能传给子孙后辈。

  8. 老年人应能寻求和发展为社会服务的机会,并以志愿工作者身份担任与其兴趣和能力相称的职务。

  9. 老年人应能组织老年人运动或协会。

照顾

  10. 老年人应按照每个社会的文化价值体系,享有家庭和社区的照顾和保护。

  11. 老年人应享有保健服务,以帮助他们保持或恢复身体、智力和情绪的最佳水平并预防或延缓疾病的发生。

  12. 老年人应享有各种社会和法律服务,以提高其自主能力并使他们得到更好的保护和照顾。

  13. 老年人应能利用适当程度的安养院照顾,使他们在人道且安定的环境中得到保护、康复以及社会和精神上的激励。

  14. 老年人居住在任何住所,安养院或治疗所时,均应能享有人权和基本自由,包括充分尊重他们的尊严、信仰、需要和隐私,并尊重他们对自己的照顾和生活品质做决择的权利。

自我充实

  15. 老年人应能追寻充分发挥自己潜力的机会。

  16. 老年人应能享用社会的教育、文化、精神和文娱资源。

尊严

  17. 老年人的生活应有尊严,有保障,且不受剥削和身心虐待。

18. 老年人不论其年龄、性别、种族或族裔背景、残疾或其他状况,均应受到公平对待,而且不论其经济贡献大小均应受到尊重。

资料引自联合国网站

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